American Yoga 2011: New Possibilities for a New Decade.

Via Carol Horton
on Jan 18, 2011
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I’m not one to make predictions on how American yoga might develop during this newly inaugurated second decade of the 21st century.

But if I had my druthers, ten years from now I’ll be able to look back and say that 2010 marked the birth of a new era of self-reflection and cultural consciousness in the North American yoga community – one that evolved in exciting and empowering ways over the course of this coming decade.

Information Explosion

At the beginning of 2010, no books on the history of American yoga existed. True, there were scads on yoga philosophy and/or asana practice. But if you were interested in learning about how yoga was first exported from India to the U.S. and subsequently developed, there was nothing to read except a few scattered magazine articles.

Then BOOM. Suddenly, last year, three books on the subject appeared: Robert Love’s The Great Oom, Stephanie Syman’s The Subtle Body, and Philip Goldberg’s American Veda. These meticulously researched, highly informative histories cover similar historical terrain, but without too much overlap. Together, they offer an incredible new resource for those interested in tracking the on-the-ground evolution of American yoga.

Also in 2010, Mark Singleton’s Yoga Body dropped a bomb into the loosely structured but often deeply held set of assumptions that had come to permeate North American yoga culture, e.g.: Yoga is a 5,000-year-old practice. Well . . . depends what you mean by that. But if you’re talking about the type of yoga that we’re doing in gyms and studios today, we now know that there’s a lot of historical evidence suggesting that the roots of contemporary asana practice trace back most directly to the early 20th century.

Whether you agree with Singleton or not, any fair-minded person will recognize that Yoga Body is a substantial work that can’t be dismissed out of hand. Like Syman, Goldberg, and Love’s books, it presents mountains of never-before-assembled information about the history of modern asana practice. Because it analyzes the development of modern yoga in India, however – rather than its subsequent evolution in the United States – its implications are much more far reaching.

This is even more true when you realize that Yoga Body builds on a small but substantial body of scholarly work that’s relatively unknown in practitioner circles: Joseph Alter’s Yoga in Modern India, Elizabeth DeMichelis’ A History of Modern Yoga, N. E. Sjoman’s The Yoga Tradition of the Mysore Palace, and David Gordon White’s Sinister Yogis (just to name my personal favorites). If you’re interested, there’s now a solid body of work detailing the development of modern asana practice that simply wasn’t available several years ago.

Blogosphere Network Map

Blogosphere Buzz

During the same time that this new literature on modern yoga has been developing, the “yoga blogoshere” has been birthed. As a newcomer myself, I can’t give a detailed history. But my sense is that most yoga blogs are only a few years old – or less. Today, there’s more than I can count, discussing everything from cute fashion trends to the possibility of enlightenment.

The blogosphere is amazing in that it allows for as many creative possibilities as people have time to develop. You don’t need to get past an editor. You don’t need an agent. You don’t need a publisher. You don’t need advertisers. You don’t need a fancy job title. You don’t need to go commercial. You don’t even need to check in with anybody else at all before going ahead and just saying what you want to say.

True, you do need access the Internet. And, more problematically, you need that all-too-rare resource today – time. The flip side of the blogosphere being free, open, and noncommercial is that most of us don’t get paid anything to work on it. This of course makes it hard to carve out the time to do it, as we typically have other jobs and commitments. And it means that really substantial work, like the books mentioned above, generally isn’t going to be produced unless supported by some source other than an individual blogger.

Be that as it may, the fact that there is this new space for sharing ideas about yoga is incredible. And there’s new innovations coming down the pike all the time – videos, podcasts, webinars, conferences, courses, etc. All of this allows for the creation of a new online community that’s interested in learning, talking, and yes, even arguing (civilly!) about yoga in a way that simply wasn’t possible only a short time ago.

"East Meets West II" by Liz Jardine

Collective Reflection and Conscious Evolution

Put these two recent developments together, and I believe that we’ve got a potentially powerful equation:

“New Information about Modern Yoga” + “New Ways of Communicating about Contemporary Practice” = ???

What this combination of new resources of information and communication will produce remains to be seen. But there’s no doubt that it presents some unprecedented possibilities.

Personally, I’d love to see this equation producing a new sense of collective self-reflection and self-imagining in the American yoga community. Until recently, we necessarily had a more limited sense of how our contemporary practice might fit into the larger story of yoga’s evolution over time. Therefore, we tended to be stuck in an unconvincing conceptual paradigm: Either we were continuing an ancient Indian practice (which meant ignoring obvious questions, such as how what we’re doing really maps onto ancient practices of ash-smeared ascetics living in caves) or we were corrupting the yoga tradition by allowing Western influences to intrude.

This either-it’s-traditional-or-it’s-corrupted mentality is no longer convincing. If you’ve read the yoga history books that have come out over the past several years, then it seems pretty evident that what we’re doing today is neither a continuation of ancient Indian yoga nor a Westernized corruption of it. Rather, it’s the next iteration of the modern re-creation of yoga that emerged out of early 20th century India.

This is not to say that yoga has no ancient roots – that would be throwing the baby out with the bath water. Rather, the point is that yoga was modernized – and in that process, partially Westernized – even before it was exported from India to America.

Modern yoga was, in other words, syncretic from the beginning, synthesizing ancient and modern, traditional and revolutionary, East and West. This was and is a powerful synthesis, designed to inject the spirit of the yoga tradition into the radically changed conditions of the modern world. Hatha yoga changed from being a secret, radically ascetic discipline for adepts dedicated to achieving Samadhi into an accessible, pragmatic technology of physical, psychological, and spiritual healing and transformation available to all.

As the generation of Indian masters who brought modern yoga to the West is aging and passing, the center of gravity for its continued development is shifting from India to North America. This makes it an important time for serious practitioners to reflect on our collective influence on continued evolution of modern yoga – both where we are now and in what directions we may be going.

Ammonite Fossils

But So What?

This is all pretty abstract, so if you’re still reading this far, you may be wondering: What is there that’s so important to reflect on, anyway?

This of course is a question with no “right answer.” But asking it is an invitation to a conversation that might produce some compelling responses.

Just for now, however, I can provide some of my own ideas. A few issues that I’d love to see a collective conversation about include:

  • What’s distinctive about modern yoga?
  • What’s its connection to the larger yoga tradition?
  • Has yoga shifted into a post-modern phase?
  • Has the explosion in the number of female teachers changed the practice?
  • How does today’s use of yoga for self-improvement compare to more traditional yogic commitments?
  • What’s the status of Samadhi, or enlightenment, in yoga culture today?
  • How much commercialization of yoga is too much, and why?
  • What’s the real and ideal relationship between representations of the body in the mainstream media versus the yoga community?
  • How could yoga be better integrated with mainstream health systems?
  • How could yoga and psychotherapy best inform one another?
  • Can yoga be a resource for political activism? Should it be?
  • Does the yoga “industry” need new forms of regulation?
  • Is it OK to label anything you want “yoga”?
  • Is yoga best understood a means of coping with or changing the world?
  • No matter how much yoga may evolve over time, does it have some essence that’s eternal?

The most fruitful questions can’t be anticipated or dictated. They’ll grow organically out of the soil of collective engagement if and when the time becomes ripe.

The Sacred Tree of Life

Re-imagining Theory as Practice

Patthabi Jois famously insisted that yoga is “99% practice, 1% theory.” And as a practitioner, there’s a part of me that totally gets this – you don’t progress in your practice by thinking about it, only by doing it.

But there’s another part of me that feels like the time is ripe for the North American yoga community to start considering theory as a part of practice – or, to borrow a phrase from Shiva Rea, as part of our engagement with yoga as a project of “conscious evolution.”

Consciousness, as I’m imagining it, involves curiosity, questioning, learning, communication, and thought. That’s why all of the new information that we have on recent yoga history is so valuable, and our new opportunities to discuss whatever we want in cyberspace even more so.

Yoga, it’s often said, involves the integration of body, mind, and spirit. I’m hoping that this second decade of the 21st century will be a time when this integration increasingly occurs on a collective, as opposed to simply individual level. The treasures of modern asana practice can, I believe, be synthesized with our emerging self-consciousness as a community of North American practitioners.

Our charge, I think, is not preserving an unchanging practice, but rather keeping our craft alive by continually re-creating it so that its spirit becomes ever more vibrant in our world.


About Carol Horton

Carol Horton, Ph.D. is the author of Race and the Making of American Liberalism, (Oxford University Press, 2005) and Yoga Ph.D.: Integrating the Life of the Mind and the Wisdom of the Body. With Roseanne Harvey, she is co-editor of 21st Century Yoga: Culture, Politics, and Practice. Carol blogs at Think Body Electric, and enjoys social media via Facebook and Twitter.


28 Responses to “American Yoga 2011: New Possibilities for a New Decade.”

  1. Yoga is truly at a crossroads here in 2011 & nothing but time will tell us where it is headed.

  2. harikirtana says:

    Thanks for initiating this collective conversation, Carol. Taking on your last question: no matter how much yoga may evolve over time, does it have some essence that’s eternal? I think the answer is yes. And I think it's important to preserve the unchanging essence of yoga by continually re-energizing it through adapting modern techniques. A synthesis of the eternal essence of yoga with contemporary knowledge and techniques is possible, but it won't come about by whimsically affixing the label "yoga" to anything we like. That would lead to an egocentric appropriation of yoga in service to the attachments and aversions of the mind, which is precisely what yoga is meant to help us move beyond (if we are to take Patanjali at his word). Similarly, the practices of ash-smeared ascetics living in caves are not suitable for contemporary western yogis; artificial renunciation of the world is the path Krishna advises Arjuna against when he counsels him (and us) in the Bhagavad-gita. Referring to seminal yoga scriptures does not mean adhering to a rigid system or antiquated dogma; the essential core of yoga is self-evident in such texts. I think the challenge for us, as contemporary yogis, is to discover how we can apply the empirical resources of the modern world to the mystical technologies of antiquity to form a synthesis that will neither embrace or reject the temporal world, but would instead engage the elements of the temporal world for a transcendental purpose.

  3. I love this article, Carol. Thank you for honoring Elephant by publishing it here.

    As you know, my own personal Yoga, and hopefully a small helpful contribution to your wishes above, is the back-to-the-roots Yoga of the Bhagavad Gita and the Upanishads. I also embrace most forms of modern Yoga.

    You write that "Modern yoga was, in other words, syncretic from the beginning, synthesizing ancient and modern, traditional and revolutionary…" As far as I can tell, this same statement could be made about Yoga at the time of the Bhagavad Gita and ever since. For all its recorded history Yoga has always been a bubbling pot of many influences, shooting off in a variety of directions.

    Thanks again for this highly thoughtful article.

    Bob W.
    Yoga Editor

  4. Leslie says:

    While I truly enjoyed your thought provoking article and feel you raise excellent questions, I find it interesting that you attribute the modernization of yoga so singly to North American practitioners. Yoga communities abound in many "Western" countries (regardless of their geographic position). New Zealand and Australia should not be ignored for their contributions (for better or worse) to modern yoga, which are in many ways both similar and distinct from "North American" yoga. There is more regular cross-pollination from India, Thailand and Bali mixed with bits and pieces of American influences. For instance, Satyananda yoga is practically unheard of in N.A. yet extremely popular Down Under. On the other hand, good luck finding an Anusara yoga instructor in the southern hemisphere. I think that to do justice to a discussion of 21st Century Yoga, you must acknowledge the separate evolutionary paths yoga has taken in the various corners of the world, otherwise it would be akin to ignoring marsupials in a discussion of land animal evolution.

  5. Ramesh says:

    Carol, I have said most of what I wanted to say about Singleton's Yoga Body here:

    And I think he has done a good job at documenting posture yoga but done a poor job at documenting the rest of the vast universe of yoga. And so here's the rub: If modern yoga is posture yoga, and if that form of yoga is only about a hundred years old, etc. then sure, that's modern yoga for you. That studio yoga. But there are many of us that do not frequent studios and do not just practice posture yoga, yet we are modern and postmodern yogis, and Americans and Europeans and Asians and South Americans. We are often branded the traditionalists by you posture yogis… Labels aside, yoga is so much more than posture yoga and those other forms of yoga which together comprises a very very broad body of knowledge and practice, is alive and well, and yes, for the umpteenth time, this form of yoga is indeed over 5000 years old. It was not invented by Krisnmacharya a hundred years ago, and I find it a lot more interesting and rewarding than Modern Yoga, if by that you mean posture yoga, which is the way I read your article. But Modern Yoga to me, is also Ancient Yoga, indeed based on ancient yoga. What posture yoga has done is largely separate itself from that living tradition, and that is really what Singleton, and you have done–you have documented and celebrated that separation. No harm done. But let's call a spade a spade. And yoga by its proper place and history.

  6. Hi, Ramesh. Very interesting take on this.

    Supporting your point of view, I guess, would be the fact that some knowledgeable observers, including the author of one of the books Carol cites in her article, "American Veda", don't even agree that posture Yoga is the dominant Yoga influence in the U.S.! See the highly relevant:

    True or False? Physical Yoga Has Influenced America More than Spiritual Yoga.


    How Yoga Has Transformed American Spirituality: An Interview with Phil Goldberg, Author of “American Veda”.

    Bob W.
    Yoga Editor

  7. TamingAuthor says:

    Your passage (below) speaks directly to the question I posed to Bob (above). Key issues.

    "Splitting the physical practices from their spiritual context constitutes a cultural misappropriation in my mind: modernity, by definition, reduces yoga to a form of fancy physicality with temporary benefits that end when the body meets its end. And traditional yoga philosophy begins with the assumption that we persist beyond the short life-span of the bodies we inhabit (see Gita 2.12), likening the healing of the body as an ultimate goal to saving the bathing suit of a drowning swimmer."

  8. Carol Horton says:

    HariKirtana and Greg: I agree up to a point, but we have a major divide over the importance of believing in something like reincarnation. I don't see it as central to yogic spirituality today at all – not that I"m against it in any way, but I absolutely do not see it as required. I think Stephen Batchelor is right, insofar as he is just very honestly describing an alternative way of working with a spiritual practice that makes sense to many people today, which simply cannot buy into traditional belief systems that don't make sense to them and don't connect to their own experience – which may be very deep, but differently understood.

    In general, I am very much against doctrine and dogma, whether religious or spiritual or yogic or whatever – the "you must believe this" or else . . . you're not legitimate, or whatever. Certainly today, it seems like a primary value that we must accept the fact that people of good faith will have different beliefs on these sorts of questions.

    Which, I think, is very much what Vivekananda was teaching – so, connecting back to Ramesh's comments, very much in line with the larger tradition of modern yoga.

  9. TamingAuthor says:

    Carol, the problem is that reincarnation is not "optional" and is not a "belief." It is a central concept.

    Both Bob and Batchelor, as well as others on the track of western materialism, do not understand the vital role of reincarnation in the yoga texts and the Gita, and in the Buddhist literature.

    When one guts the practice of this understanding, as Batchelor does, it is not because of increased or better understanding but rather because of a failure in the practice. He sets other people up for failure as well.

    The mistake arises from western cynicism that says reincarnation appears in the old texts as a result of belief. People like Bob then redact these references, gutting the material. This is an error. (Which you are repeating.) Reincarnation appears based on the firsthand experience of the teachers. They do not add it as an "extra" but rather point to an understanding the student must reach. It is not about belief. It is about a state of awareness.

    The essence of reincarnation is a statement about the true essence of the practitioner. If one does not grasp that this is your nature, the practice will hit a dead end. Done. Finished.

    Here is an analogy. A student practices with a black bag over his head. He becomes very good in the studio where four walls provide safety. But then the instructor takes the student out in nature to a meadow. At one end of the meadow is a cliff. One false step and one plummets to one's death.

    Now the student can insist on practicing with the black bag over his head and risk plummeting to his death or he can agree to remove the black bag so he can see. Reincarnation, lack of understanding of, is like the black bag, it is existing in a condition of limited awareness and perception. Okay if one wants to putter around the studio, but a definite liability if one wishes to really practice.

  10. Carol, great article! it is a completely new world :-) Especially liked the mention of the blogosphere which is transforming the communication around yoga

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