A mudrā Sanskrit: मुद्रा, lit. “seal”, is a symbolic or ritual gesture in Hinduism and Buddhism. A mudrā is a spiritual and energetic seal in the spiritual practice of East Asian religions. Some mudrās involve the entire body, but most are shown with hands and fingers.
Some important mudras:
Dhyani Mudra ~ Meditation
Vitarka Mudra ~ Teaching
Dharmachakra Mudra ~ Turning the Wheel of Dhamma
Bhumisparsha Mudra ~ Touching Earth – Enlightenment
Abhaya Mudra ~ Fearlessness/Protection
Varada Mudra ~ Granting Wishes
Uttarabodhi Mudra ~ Supreme Enlightenment
Anjali Mudra ~ Greeting and Veneration
Vajrapradama Mudra ~ Unshakable Confidence
In this mudra, back of right hand rests in palm of other with tips of thumbs lightly touching. The hands rest in lap. The right hand, resting on top, symbolizes state of enlightenment; the other below, the world of appearance. This gesture expresses overcoming the world of appearance through enlightenment, as well as the enlightened mind where samsara and nirvana are one.
In a special form of this mudra, middle, ring, and little fingers of both hand
s lie on top of one another ande the thumbs and index fingers of each hand, touching each other, form a circle, which symbolizes the world of appearance and true nature of reality.
Right hand up, left down; both palms turned out. The thumb and index finger of each hand form a circle. Right hand is shoulder level, left hand is hip level. A variant is left hand rests palm up in lap, and right hand raised to shoulder level with thumb and index finger forming circle. Another form is with index finger and little fingers of both hands fully extended, middle and ring fingers curved in. The left hand points up, right points down.
The left palm is turned in (toward the body), right out, and circles formed by thumbs and index fingers of each hand touch.
Left hand rests palm up in lap; right hand, hanging over knee, palm in, points down to earth. Sometimes left hand holds a begging bowl. This is the gesture Buddha summoned Earth as witness to realization of buddhahood. It is a gesture of unshakability; Akshobhya (the Unshakable) is depicted with this mudra.
Right hand is raised to shoulder height with fingers extended and palm turned out. This is gesture of Buddha immediately after attaining enlightenment.
Right hand, palm facing out, is down. WhenBuddhais depicted with this mudra, it symbolizes summoning Heaven as witness to buddhahood. In a variation, thumb and index finger of down extended hand touch. Frequently abhaya and varada mudras are combined: right hand makes gesture of fearlessness, left of wish granting.
Both hands are held at level of chest, two raised index fingers touch, remaining fingers are crossed and folded down;thumbs touch at tips or crossed and folded.
Mudra of Supreme Wisdom
Right index finger is grasped by five fingers of left hand. This mudra represents the realization of unity in the manifold as embodied in Buddha.
Palms held together at level of chest. This is a customary greeting in many Asian countries. Used as a mudra, it expresses “suchness” (tahata).
Fingertips of hands are crossed. This is the gesture of unshakable confidence.