There have always been the mountain herbalists, the grannies and the people who have used weeds and plants as medicine.
For a couple of decades, we were encouraged to look to exotic plants from far-off lands to use as medicines, ignoring those that grow all around us.
Perhaps, because of the locavore movement, we are now looking to the medicinal weeds and herbs that grow right outside our doors.
It is not uncommon for people to tell me that they’ve sent off for seeds for plants like chickweed, dandelion and burdock—it can be difficult to convince people that the dandelions in their yard are the exact same thing that they are wishing to grow.
This is not unlike our tendency to drive past vast wild raspberry patches in order to plunk down $3 for a pint of cultivated berries at the store; we have become so distanced from our food sources that we’ve learned not to trust ourselves when it comes to things like foods or first aid.
Sometimes, people are completely overwhelmed at the thought of learning all about medicinal herbs—that’s easy to understand.
There are thousands of plants with properties that we can use; there are very few that we cannot, as a matter of fact and it is a lot of information to learn.
But here is a little secret: most of us use about ten herbs, ninety perccent of the time, so the easiest way to learn them is one or two at a time.
Within a year or two, one can have a very good arsenal of knowledge. And, it’s easy to do, seasonally.
In early spring, perhaps good choices would be chickweed, violet or thyme; in summer, chamomile, comfrey, valerian or plantain abound and autumn brings elderberry, echinacea or dandelion roots.
Read about one plant. Use it in every way possible. Get to know it and, very soon, it will be second nature to reach for a plantain leaf when someone nearby is stung by a bee.
There are many ways to use these herbs in preparations and that is really more than half the fun; the following methods are the easiest ways that I’ve learned to do them.
Some people make extremely careful measurements, complicated procedures and that’s fine; the most important thing is to find a method that feels right and get started. There are almost as many ways to do things as there are herbalists but remember, these things have been done for centuries without the availability of scales, thermometers or well written instructions!
Most people begin with teas or tisanes. In many herb books, they are also referred to as infusions but in recent years, that term has come to be used in other ways, so to avoid confusion, teas or tisanes will suffice.
For herbal teas, simply pour hot water over the herb (1T fresh or 1t dried) in a cup; tea balls are great or heat sealable tea bags, muslin bags; there are all kinds of available means to strain out the herb, prior to drinking.
My own first summer of wild-crafting, I gradually filled a gallon jar with dried things that would be good in tea—a few roses, some mint, elderflowers and berries, lavender, thyme, echinacea leaves—all were dried and added to the jar. Over the winter, each cup was a wonderful, delicious, surprise.
As you learn more about the medicinal properties of herbs, it gets easier to blend useful teas. Note that leaves and flowers should be steeped five to fifteen minutes; roots, barks and dried berries are “decocted”, meaning that they are simmered on the stove for fifteen minutes or so, to extract their useful components.
These are made in much the same way as teas, as such that they are formulated to drink but are combined to soothe or nourish the skin. Sometimes, one can drink the same concoction that will be used for bathing.
Many times, instructions say to hang a muslin bag from the faucet while drawing the bath—that really doesn’t work well, though. A better means is to fill a half gallon pitcher with very hot water and then submerge a muslin bag filled with the herbs in the water, while running a bath. It makes a strong tea, that is then poured into the bath.
Additions like oatmeal, powdered milk or salt can be added directly to the tea bag; herbs can be used fresh or dried. Good choices are comfrey root and leaf, calendula flowers, lavender, chamomile, mints, yarrow, plantain, chickweed and sage.
Different herb choices would be made depending on the purpose.
Balms and salves
Making a balm or salve is simply using beeswax to harden a quantity of oil to a desired consistency.
To use herbs in these products, herbs are infused in the oils prior to being blended with the beeswax; I find it easiest to use gentle heat for a few hours but many people give them a few weeks, at room temperature.
If using fresh herbs, wilt them for twelve to twenty-four hours (depending on the moisture content of the plant) first, to get rid of as much moisture as possible.
If using the room temperature method, be sure to cover the container with a porous material (a coffee filter, for instance) to keep dust and debris from contaminating the oil, while allowing moisture to evaporate.
Add one part beeswax to 4 parts of the strained oil and heat slowly to melt the wax; stir and pour into containers and add more (or less) beeswax for a different viscosity.
Tinctures: Folk method
Tinctures are simple to make and a perfect way to preserve medicinal herbs; constituents in most herbs are partly water soluble and partly alcohol soluble.
Wilt the herbs to get rid of excess moisture and then use a good quality (one hundred proof) vodka; fill a jar with chopped herb; cover with alcohol of choice, wait 6 weeks and it is ready to use!
Some people put their herbs in a food processor first—some shake their jars every day.
If the tincture is not needed right away, it is fine to leave it unstrained for years. In fact, tinctures keep for many years just as they are, strained or with the herbs left in the alcohol.
A general usage would be about 1 dropper full (about twenty-five drops) equaling a strong cup of tea. For young children a drop per year of age is a common usage rate but for kids, a little research is in order.
If alcohol is not an option, glycerin can be substituted—it isn’t quite as good and the tinctures only last for a year or so but it is a decent substitute.
Capsules are another way to consume medicinal herbs. The herbs in capsules lose their efficacy more quickly than tinctures but many people feel most comfortable with capsules. Empty capsules can be obtained at health food stores and herb shops and then filled with freshly dried and ground herbs.
Herbs can also be infused in vinegars, made into jellies and syrups, brewed into wines and cordials and used in food recipes…there are endless ways for herbs to be implemented.
As Fall approaches, the elderberries beg to be harvested and used in the coming winter to help our family avoid colds and flu; we’ll make tinctures and syrup then freeze many of them for pies and jams so we can eat our medicine.
Goldenrod will be harvested for the assistance it can give us with upper-respiratory issues and plantain; calendula and sage will be dried or infused in oil for later use. We gather wild and cultivated mints and rosehips for tea blends; various roots and barks will be gathered as well.
Any one of these herbs would be a good place to begin an herbal journey.
Tina Sams has been working with herbs for over 20 years and editing The Essential Herbal Magazine for 11 years. On a 35 acre farm that encompasses woodland, wetland, and meadows, she grows and wildcrafts nearly all of the herbs used by her family and business. Wild foods and wild medicinal plants are a favorite topic. Soapmaking takes up a part of most days, as well.
Editor: Bryonie Wise
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